I came across a very interesting article on the NASA site yesterday (though it was published last month) on the public perception of climate change:
“it was disappointing that most early media reports on the heat wave, widespread drought, and intense forest fires in the United States in 2012 did not mention or examine the potential connection between these climate events and global warming. Is this reticence justified?
“In a new paper (Hansen et al., 2012a), we conclude that such reticence is not justified. The paper attempts to illustrate the data in ways that properly account for climate variability yet are understandable to the public.”
The key idea is that the authors make no predictions about climate change – they simply illustrate that global warming is already happening, and quickly, by graphing seasonal temperature – see ‘Figure 2’ for the Northern Hemisphere.
In essence, just by looking at recorded data, two things are clear:
The curves are moving to the right: Temperatures are rising, and accelerating over time.
The curves are widening: More extreme ‘climate change’ weather (including cold events) are becoming more common.
On the same day on the Washington Post site I found a series of cartoons by Toles that capture rather well the frustration many of us feel about the political response to climate change.
Advertisements play while the cartoon gallery loads – am I the only one to notice the irony that the adverts include ones by Conoco-Phillips and Mercedes-Benz?
During this week Renault put out various technical briefings on the operation of subsystems in the Zoe and its other EVs. On 14 September Automobile Challenges carried an article giving details of the Zoe’s braking system, and its improvements over that in the Fluence ZE. In the Fluence ZE regenerative braking occurs when the driver releases the accelerator; the brake pedal operates a conventional hydraulic braking circuit. In the Zoe, the brake pedal operates a system that blends braking effort from regeneration and a hydraulic system, taking account of the driving situation:
“If one believes those responsible for its development at Renault, Aymeric Bruneau and Basile De-Branche, this decoupled brake pedal system can extend by about 10% the range of the Renault ZOE by doubling the rate of kinetic energy recovery compared to its predecessor, the Fluence ZE… As well as depression of the brake pedal, the system continuously measures the vehicle speed, the differential speed of the four wheels, the rate of lateral acceleration and the steering angle.”
On 17 September Auto-Addict gave details of Renault’s plans for development of EV technology, highlighting improvements made between the Fluence and the Zoe. This included coverage of the braking system, but also touched on the climate control and charging systems. On the heating system it said:
“Conventional motor vehicles have abundant ‘free’ heat provided by the engine (two-thirds of the energy contained in the fuel is dissipated as heat). In winter an electric car gets its heat energy from the battery, which can have a significant impact on battery life. The ZOE replaces the electrical resistance heating of the Fluence by a heat pump that is on average twice as effective when the outside temperature is 0-7ºC, which corresponds to a gain of 25% in range which would increase it from 80 to 100 kilometres. Other benefits are that the system is more comfortable than ordinary car heating because it heats much faster, and also it can be used for air conditioning.”
First Test Drive
On 21 September AutoBild.de posted an early driving review of the Zoe, following a brief test drive at Munich’s ‘Allianz Zentrums für Technik’. It gives an insight into the start-up process:
“The start button is pressed, to a quiet computer start-up sound playing (as we know from the Nissan Leaf) and the message “Ready” appears. Move the somewhat long lever to D, and there you go, electric drive. The 65-kW motor and the torque of 220 Nm are available immediately providing the typical electric car sprinting power and are sufficient for a car of Polo size. The narrow instruments are all digital, even a picture of Zoe herself appears.”
On 9 September the French LA Tribune reported on the start of production of the Clio at Renault’s Flins factory, to be followed by the Zoe. Mass production of the Clio IV began in July at 30 cars per day, planned to increase to 300 per day. The Flins site starts two new models almost simultaneously with the manufacture of the Zoe just beginning. Eric Marchiol, Director, said:
“We build 5 per day and should increase to 30-40 in November.”
Renault has invested €150 million in Flins for the Clio IV, but also for the Zoe. In order to improve quality Renault added 340 new tools for stamping and 150 robots for handling sheet metal.
On 4 September Renault’s blog featured the opening of the Moscow Motor Show, which ran until 9 September. Renault became the leading foreign brand on the Russian market in the first half of 2012, and the market is the Group’s third biggest market after France and Brazil.
Renault displayed 21 vehicles on its stand. Alongside the legendary Type XB (also named “Tsarine” as it was used by the court of Nicholas II) were models that are made locally, like Logan, Sandero and Duster.
“The Moscow Motor Show is also an opportunity for Russians to discover Renault’s range of electric vehicles (ZOE and Twizy are among the models on the stand) and to learn more about its new design strategy, of which the Captur concept car provides a fine example.”
Chargemaster Fast Charger
On the same day it was announced that Chargemaster would be introducing new products at LCV2012, Cenex’s fifth Low Carbon Vehicle event. These would include the launch of a 43kW charger for the Renault Zoe; no further details have yet been publicised.
Truth About Electric Cars
On 6 September the Telegraph carried an article on ‘Electric cars: the truth about the cost – and range’. While it was quite negative about electric cars in general, it was complimentary about the Fluence, and then singled out the Zoe as the best buy:
“So should you, the would-be electric car buyer, be placing an order for a Fluence on the grounds that it’s the best of the existing EV bunch? I suggest not, because there’s an even better all-electric car due in Britain early next year.
“It’s a five-door hatchback called the Renault Zoe and at only £13,650 it’s almost half the price of the admittedly slightly larger Leaf. More importantly, Renault claims that the Zoe’s real-world range should be in the region of the psychologically important 100 miles.
“If you’ve got a mere £49 to spare, Renault says that’s all you need to get on the waiting list. With the Fluence and, to an even greater extent, the forthcoming Zoe, at last the all-electric car begins to make sense both practically and financially.”
On 7 August Auto Express presented a ‘Best Superminis’ shortlist: ‘The 10 best superminis you’ll be able to buy in the coming months’. Zoe came number nine in the list:
“No one has made a commitment to electric cars quite like Renault, and the Clio-sized Zoe is expected to be the big-seller, with tens of thousands finding homes every year. What sets the Zoe apart is its pricing structure: unlike the Nissan Leaf buyers pay from £13,650 for the car then rent the batteries for around £70 a month, making it a far more attractive proposition. Power comes from an 88bhp electric motor – 20bhp less than the Leaf – which is mounted on the front axle, while the battery pack is stuffed under the floor. Charging takes anywhere between 30 minutes from a industrial-spec fast charger to nine hours from a household socket. This provides 130 miles of driving before it’s time to top up again.”
Cold Weather Testing
On 17 August Renault released the third instalment of its Renault ZOE Confidential blog, this one about cold weather tests in Lapland. Judging by the vehicle’s registration number (HCU889), it was the same one that took part in the similar testsdescribed by Auto Express in March.
It sounds like the tests were comprehensive, covering driving and handling plus vehicle components including the battery and the charging system. Renault reported that the Zoe achieved top marks, especially compared to internal-combustion cars:
“motor start-up: exactly the same at -30°C as in temperate weather, i.e. immediately and silently. No engine warm-up, no smoke plumes, no clatter.
“first runs: the motor is not affected by the cold. Motorists can drive off straight away and floor the accelerator without having to warm the car up. Also, while in motion, the battery heats up and gradually improves the points mentioned above.
“heating: on top of being frugal, the heat pump provides heat fast. The car doesn’t need to be started several minutes beforehand.
“pre-conditioning system: to heat the cabin up a little and defrost the windows before taking off, drivers simply pre-program the heating and the car is at “room temperature” when they get in. This will never be possible with a combustion vehicle, where the engine needs to be turned on.
“Our engineers were pleasantly surprised by Renault ZOE – by the fast-action heat pump, by the strong performance of the battery on power in cold conditions and its ability to start the motor at very low temperatures, and by the car’s road holding, especially grip on slippery surfaces. The battery’s central and low position is a big advantage here.”
The use of a heat pump to provide heating in an EV is certainly an original and promising idea since its high efficiency should reduce energy consumption and so increase range, particularly in cold weather. There has been speculation that it could be transferred to the Nissan LEAF, the current best-selling EV from the Nissan-Renault alliance.
On 18 July I finally had a chance to test drive two of the vehicles in Renault’s Z.E. range of EVs, the Fluence Z.E. and the Twizy.
I had been in contact with my local Renault dealer, Marshalls in Milton Keynes, about opportunities for test drives since March. Although the Fluence Z.E. was launched in the UK and widely reviewed in February, examples for test drive did not appear until some months later. By July both the Fluence and Twizy were available and I went to test drive them, along with a group of friends.
The original Fluence is, of course, a fairly popular booted petrol car on the continent, though not available in the UK because hatchbacks are more popular here. I was quietly impressed by the Z.E. version – it drove very well, accelerated fast, turn corners confidently and all with five people on board. However, what was most obvious was just how much like a standard car it was. I believe this is a deliberate approach by Renault, as the Fluence is primarily aimed at fleets and company drivers. It doesn’t shout – in fact it barely whispers – electric drive.
Inside the controls and displays are understated and very similar to their petrol equivalents, and outside there is very little to give away that it’s electric – just a ‘Z.E.’ logo on the boot lid, and of course the absence of an exhaust pipe. If you want to drive an electric car but you don’t want anyone to know then the Fluence is your first choice!
Next we took turns in a Twizy – Renault’s urban/city electric car, though technically it’s a quadricycle. It sits somewhere between a conventional car and a moped or scooter. It has four wheels like a car, but the basic model comes without doors and most of the luxury equipment people associate with a car (e.g. heater, sound system). Fortunately this example was ‘upgraded’ with doors, a useful accessory in UK weather and in fact at this point it was raining hard. Even these doors, however, don’t come with windows so you are still partly exposed to the elements (this is apparently to eschew the need for a heater/demister system).
It’s really a driver’s vehicle – although it can carry an adult passenger, the rear position has poor visibility and is more exposed to the weather (particularly to water spray from wet roads). To the driver, though, it is an exciting vehicle to drive. It handles well, very much like a go-kart. It is very low to the ground, and in fact you can see the road surface going past your feet as though you were on a motor bike. The ride is quite hard, even harsh, but this tautness means that it feels very stable and sure footed, even at high road speeds.
If I had to sum up the Twizy in just one word it would be: Fun! Whether it is a practical commuting vehicle I couldn’t say, but I can imagine that most owners look forward to spending time in their Twizy, something you can’t say for most drives these days.
And fortunately someone has answered for us that most important question – Will it Drift?!
To complete the Renault Z.E. line-up comes the Kangoo van. We didn’t get to try it out, but it is available for test drives.
On 2 July the second instalment of the Zoe Confidential blog gave details of the Zoe crash testing undertaken at Renault’s Lardy Technical Center. Lardy, which opened in 1951, handles testing of all Renault engines and gearboxes. In 2011 the centre set up an electric vehicle unit for testing the motors and batteries used in Renault’s ZE line-up.
Lardy also handles the full range of passive safety tests, including front, side and rear collisions. The centre’s test rigs cover most kinds of real-life accident situation, the aim being to improve vehicle resilience and minimize the risk of bodily injury to occupants. One particular test is highlighted:
“That’s precisely where our visit starts, observing the installation of four dummies (two adult-sized ones at the front and two child-sized ones at the rear) in a superb white ZOE, which is set to be propelled against an obstacle at a speed of 65 km/h. Each crash test demands three days of preparation. Here we see the technicians making the final adjustments. The car’s bristling with sensors. The boot’s packed with electronic gear. And paint is being applied on the dummies so that the impact points on the car interior can be determined. Once everything’s ready, everyone scurries off the test track. The car is ready for its last run, a sacrifice that will be everything but futile. The whirr of the engine ends just seconds later in a mighty crash… The car went from 65 km/h to standstill over a distance of 50 centimetres.”
“During the design phase, close to a hundred ZOEs will have undergone all types of crash test (front, side and rear impact, pedestrian impact, etc.).”
Other tests cover watertightness, fording, road cycle simulation and endurance for the body. There is also a range of tests for the battery alone, including temperature, chemical attack, fire, electrical overload and impact.
Next Green Car Awards
On 4 July it was announced that the Zoe had received two awards in the Next Green Car Awards 2012. Next Green Car made awards across eight vehicle categories including the ‘Next Generation’ Award, which includes new technology models close to market launch. An overall winner is also awarded the title of Next Green Car ‘Gold Award’ 2012. The nine winners were selected from shortlists of 26 of the UK’s greenest new cars of 2012/13, all selected for their environmental Green Car Rating (GCR), level of innovation, value, drive experience and design.
Zoe won the award for the Supermini 2012 category, and also the overall Gold Award 2012. Dr Ben Lane, Managing Editor of Next Green Car, stated:
“The 2012 winners reflect two key elements underlying current green car development: downsizing and electrification. Three of the winners are brand new models and follow the design philosophy of ‘small is beautiful’. Over half of the winners also incorporate electric drive-trains, either as pure electric cars, plug-in hybrids or with start-stop.
“Indeed, the Next Green Car Gold Award 2012 goes to the highly innovative Renault ZOE Z.E. which for the first time offers a zero-emission all-electric supermini to the UK car buyer.”
In receiving the Gold Award 2012, Andy Heiron, Head of Electric Vehicle Programme, Renault UK said:
“We’re delighted that ZOE has collected not just one, but two awards from Next Green Car, several months before it even launches in the UK; especially the prestigious Next Green Car Gold Award.
“With an affordable price tag, stylish design and great technology including six world premieres such as its innovative Chameleon charger with fast charge capability and the R-Link internet connected integrated touch-screen tablet, we have very high hopes for the fourth model in our electric vehicle range.”
LG Chem Batteries
On 6 July Motor Nature reported that the Zoe would not be getting batteries from the planned battery production facility at Flins. Instead, it would be supplied directly by the South Korean company LG Chem.
Later in the month Renault reaffirmed the partnership with LG, and stated that Zoe (and also Twizy) batteries would be made by LG. Also, that it remained keen to build a dedicated battery factory in France with LG, but that its location was under review.
Zoe Show at L’Atelier Renault
A ‘ZOE RE-VOLUTION’ show opened at L’Atelier Renault in Paris on 14 July, running until 21 October, ‘dedicated to bringing visitors an original electric-technology experience with a show dedicated 100% to ZOE, the latest arrival in Renault’s range of full-electric vehicles’. It was described by Renault as follows:
“The new all-ZOE show presents Renault’s 100% electric city car in an atmosphere inspired by purity and passion. Visitors get to find out all about electric technology.
“L’Atelier Renault is displaying a life-sized ZOE split down the middle that shows how easy the car is to charge, which plugs into all types of charging stations. And for even more in-depth knowledge of ZOE and electric cars, received ideas about electric mobility are dispelled via wall-mounted screens in a continuous loop.
“A ‘Take-Care’ space has been set up to give visitors an idea of the sensory experience on-board ZOE, reproducing lighting, odours and even the wind blowing through their hair, courtesy of a wall covered floor to ceiling with the latest Dyson fans!
“In addition, visitors can be the first to experience the 100% electric experience thanks to a special area where they can reserve their ZOE. Twizy is also still on show at L’Atelier Renault, in a lounge space echoing the colors and electronic ambience of Twizy ambassadors Cathy and David Guetta.”
Renault announced on 20 July that, along with Paris Région Lab, it had picked five start-up companies to develop R-Link projects in a Connected Mobility and Services ‘incubator’ set up by the two partners. This followed a call for bids at the start of the year to select innovative start-ups working in connected services.
“Looking to open up to new technological innovations in connected mobility, Renault has joined forces with Paris Région Lab to select partner start-ups and develop working relationships as part of an approach based on dialogue, innovation and openness. The two partners have chosen five young companies, Apila, SoCloz, MobiquiThings, I-Dispo and Telepark, which have set up shop in a dedicated space at the Paris Innovation Masséna ‘incubator’ in the 13tharrondissement in Paris. The partnership’s initial achievement is a set of new connected mobility services available on R-Link (to feature notably on New Clio and ZOE) based on the development of special apps.”
The five companies/applications are:
Apila – a multi-platform, community-based mobile app used to exchange street parking spaces in real time.
MobiquiThings – a mobile operator that works with manufacturers in all sectors (automotive and transport, logistics, energy, water, health, safety, etc.) by operating fleets of communicating machines. The company supplies its own, branded SIM 2G (GSM) and 3G cards and the corresponding subscriptions, contracts and connections.
SoCloz – a ‘pre-shopping assistant’ that helps web users find products and the real-life stores that sell them. Users get dedicated store information (stock, prices and special deals, plus opening hours, distances and so on) updated several times per day.
I-Dispo – an original virtual concierge that provides assistance in doing simple tasks such as organizing an appointment with a local professional, comparing product and service prices and getting estimates from service providers.
Telepark – an electronic automation and parking management solution for town councils and motorists. More specifically, it helps motorists pay for parking instantly from their mobile device and brings them a range of complementary services such as reminders on parking time limits, remote reminders/deactivation, and consumption records.
“A Renault spokeswoman said the decision to push back the launch of the ZOE to 2013 from the last quarter of this year was taken because of software bugs in the car’s R-Link on-board multimedia system. She couldn’t say when the commercial launch is now expected to take place. ‘We need more time to carry out tests,’ she said.”
However, later that day, another report from WSJ said that Renault still planned to launch Zoe by the end of the year, contradicting the earlier statement:
“A spokeswoman for the French auto maker blamed ‘confusion’ over the timing of the launch when she told Dow Jones Newswires earlier Wednesday that the commercial launch of the car had been pushed back…”
“In response to the rumours surrounding the launch of ZOE, Renault has confirmed that the vehicle will be launched at the end of 2012 and that the first orders will be taken on the closing of the Paris Motor Show.”
On 1 June the Zoe set a new world record for the longest distance travelled in 24 hours by a production electric car. Zoe completed 363 laps of the Aubevoye speed ring in Normandy, a distance of 1,618 km, beating the former record of 1,280 km by 25%.
Two Renault Zoe vehicles set out on the speed ring at the Aubevoye technical centre (CTA) in Normandy. Fifteen drivers from Aubevoye, Cléon, Sandouville, Flins, Douai and Grand Couronne took turns at the wheel, driving and charging as necessary. Twenty-four hours later, the two Zoe vehicles crossed the finishing line, with mileage of 1,618 km and 1,506 km respectively.
“Using its Caméléon charger ZOE was able to be fast-charged at 43 kW, regaining 80% of battery capacity in under thirty minutes. This challenge was also made possible by the best-in-class NEDC range of 210 km (between 100 and 150 km in real conditions, depending on conditions of use). Overall, the finalist ZOE was fast-charged 18 times in 24 hours.”
Presumably the charging was arranged for maximum range efficiency, so that minimum time was spent charging and maximum time driving; therefore the cars would not have been charged to 100% each time (since the last 10-20% takes a disproportionately long time). Assuming the finalist Zoe started fully charged, it used at most 19 full charges to achieve its range of 1,618km, i.e. it went more than 85km on each charge. That is a significant achievement where each charge is less than the maximum possible.
On 8 June Renault published the first instalment of its ‘ZOE Confidential’ blog, an interview with Jean Semeriva, the designer of the Zoe exterior.
Some interesting quotes from the article:
“The main idea is that ZOE doesn’t have corners, and when the movement suggested by a line comes to an end, it is replaced by another.”
“In absolute terms we didn’t have a lot of constraints stemming from the fact that ZOE is an electric car or city car. We had to raise the seats slightly – and the roof, too – so we could place the battery under the floor. But we worked hand in hand with engineers to minimise this kind of impact. Electric motors also take up a little less place than regular engines, which played a role in the overall design. We really aimed for simplicity.”
On 10 June two different versions of the Zoe featured in a photoshoot on AutoNewsWorld.com. As well as providing artistic views of the exterior, there are good, clear photographs of the interior.
WhatCar Reader Review
In May WhatCar invited its readers to volunteer to review the Zoe, and on 11 June published a Reader Review video. Overall the reviewers seem very happy with what they saw.
Goodwood Festival of Speed
To complete a busy month, Zoe had its first showing to the British public at the Goodwood Festival of Speed from 29 June to 1 July. For 2012 Renault was back as sponsor and showed off a number of key vehicles, including the 1935 Viva Grand Sport, the Alpine A110, Megane R.S. and Clio R.S. The Zoe was displayed on a stand along with an electric Renault 5 from 1974.
I visited the EcoVelocity Motor Show on 13 May to try out some hybrid and electric cars first hand. This ‘Green Motor Show’ covers all low carbon cars, from economical petrol cars through hybrids to full electric cars:
“The low carbon market is developing and improving at a fantastic rate and we are very excited to be supporting the shift towards a brighter, cleaner motoring future. With new vehicle technologies emerging rapidly, EcoVelocity is the ideal event to discover and sample many of them. We also hope you’ll discover the many benefits and pleasures of owning a low carbon vehicle including substantial grants, road tax and congestion charge exemption to name a few, as well as reducing your environmental impact.”
To me there were two disappointments to the show. Firstly it was small, and I imagine it only had as many visitors as it did by being run alongside the much larger Grand Designs Live show. Secondly, there was no Renault stand, though I did manage to see a Kangoo electric van on the EDF stand, and a Twizy quadricycle in the Grand Designs hall. Nonetheless, it was very useful to get to see so many EVs and hybrids together in one place, and have the opportunity to test drive a selection of them.
This event was the first time I saw a number of electric cars and plug-in hybrids ‘in the flesh’. There was a ‘supercar’ stand near the entrance that featured a Tesla Roadster EV, a Delta Motorsport E4 Coupe EV, a Lightning GT EV and a Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid.
Further in there were dedicated stands as follows:
Citroën, including the C-Zero EV (a rebadged Mitsubishi i-MIEV)
Vauxhall, including the Ampera plug-in hybrid (a rebadged Chevrolet Volt) and a RAKe quadricycle
Nissan, showcasing the LEAF EV
Chevrolet, including the Volt plug-in hybrid
Mia, with a selection of Mia EVs
EDF Energy, including a Renault Kangoo Z.E. electric van and a Peugeot iOn EV (a rebadged Mitsubishi i-MIEV).
Peugeot, including the 508 – the first example of a hybrid diesel.
There were also some smaller supplier stands that featured EVs (including a Mitsubishi i-MIEV, another Tesla Roadster and another Nissan LEAF).
The best thing about this event was that it included a dedicated track for test driving the various vehicles being shown – in fact, a small under cover track leading to a long road circuit around Docklands. Although test drives were intended to be booked in advance I managed to get some through a combination of arriving early, and revisiting stands regularly checking for ‘no shows’. My first drive was in a Nissan LEAF EV and it was very enjoyable. It was my first drive in any EV, so I was concerned it might turn out to be a disappointment but it was as smooth, quiet and ‘high-tech’ as I had hoped.
Next I drove the Vauxhall Ampera plug-in hybrid. I must say I was very impressed with it – just getting into the driver’s seat gave a feeling of climbing into ‘Starship Enterprise’. Personally I’m keen on getting a fully electric car, but I can certainly see the temptation of an Ampera or Volt. It was very smooth and effortless to drive, certainly an experience apart from an ordinary petrol car.
Finally I got to drive a Peugeot 508 diesel hybrid. It was impressive, particularly the smoothness of the transition from electric to diesel power, but having experienced the ‘EV’ experience of a plug-in I have no interest in ‘old fashioned’ soft hybrids, even though I can appreciated the cleverness of the technology.
To conclude the day I attended presentations by Robert Llewellyn (well known for his EV advocacy, and Fully Charged podcasts) and Andy Heiron (Head of Electric Vehicle Programme – Renault UK).
I have put a full set of photographs of the day online on Flickr.
On 11 May Automotive News Europe gave details of an interview conducted with Thierry Koskas, Renault’s EV Project Director where it was said that Renault expects the Zoe to far outsell the Nissan LEAF (the current world’s best-selling EV) in Europe. With an annual production capacity for the Zoe of 150,000 units, the subcompact would be the volume model among Renault’s four-model EV range, which includes the Fluence large sedan, Kangoo car-derived van and scooter-style Twizy.
Koskas told Automotive News Europe:
“The Zoe is the first electric car in Europe that will address the needs of the mass-consumer market.
“The Zoe is a next-generation car. It is launching two years later than the Leaf. The Zoe will benefit from technologies that the Leaf does not have, such as a braking energy-recovery system, a heat pump, and a special series of energy efficient tires.”